Sunday, March 22, 2020

Animal Cells Essays - Organelles, Cell, Endoplasmic Reticulum

Animal Cells ANIMAL CELLS My cell is the animal cell It really depends on which cell you are talking about - different cells do different things. Such as skin cells. They form a barrier on the outside of the body which protects the organs and tissues inside. It stops them getting damaged by bumps and knocks and also prevents bacteria and viruses from getting into your body. The cells structure, contains the Cell Membrane keeping the cell together and controlling what substances go in and out, Cytoplasm is the water-rich matrix within a cell that contains and surrounds the other cell contents. Nucleolus is a small region that is made up of RNA and protiens,it also produces ribosomes. Mitochondria burns food molecules to release energy. This energy is used by cells to do work. This work may be building new molecules which have a particular function in the body, or it may be to produce movement. Ribosomes are often attached along the length of the ER. These manufacture proteins which pass into the i nner part of the tube they might have sugars of fats added and they fold up into the shape they need to be to carry out their function. Rough and Smoth ER. is the sythesis of proteins or transportation materials through the cell Rough ER is rought because ribosomes are stuck to its surface which gies it a rough apperance. New protiens are inserted into the rougth ER there they may be chenimcaly modified. the Smooth ER are sacks that look smooth and are not studded in which chemicals and enzymes are stored.Goli Apparatus modifies and collects and distributes molecules made at one end of the cell and used in another. Lysosomes are bags of destructive enzymes which are produced by the cell to break down complex molecules. Vacuoles are sack that store water,salts, proteins and carbohydrates.Centriole is a structure that comains microtubule protein called tubulin.cytoskeloten is a web of fibres which provide a sort of scaffolding for the cell, keepings its shape and supporting the organe lles which are inside. Cell Wall help protect the the cell from what is outside of the cell and also supports the cell. I hoped you learned alot about the animal cell I enjoyed learning about it and wish that I could of spent more time on the project and it is also amazing that we started life being no bigger than a period on this report. And that how important cells are to our life. Science

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Free Essays on Various Topics

1. Discuss the Characteristics of Developing Nations Some of the first things that come to mind when the term ‘developing nation’ is used are; backward, third-world, primitive, poverty, disease, unfortunate, and sheltered. All societies at one time or another in their existence were, in fact, considered developing nations, some develop at a faster pace than others and some seem rather stagnant in growth. There are many explanations as to why this occurs, the main determinants being cultural beliefs, including family life and ties, and economical and political ideals. Individually as well as geographically, people, tribes, families, and villages in developing, or traditional, societies are extremely distant. The text sites the main areas of deficiency in these particular societies; isolation, illiteracy, and distrust. With the lack of integration with others outside of their own group, it makes it impossible to have any differing beliefs brought about and in turn, different languages and cultures as well. You can see how this can cause a problem when one is finally faced with someone from a surrounding tribe. All of their life they have been taught that there is no other way than the way they are living, then they are blindsided with other languages and beliefs that they are not prepared to comprehend. This poses a problem for individual groups who reside in an area where there are other groups live nearby, and share a common ground of some sort for hunting or recreation of some sort, it can be a major cause of conflict. It is also noted that the combination of these issues has a snowballing result that follows; there is at first an inability to communicate with one another, which in turn brings suspicion, distrust, and detachment, which in turn brings further isolation, and causes the cycle to repeat itself over and over again. A vital makeup of life in a developing nation is a tribe or a village. Tribes are primari... Free Essays on Various Topics Free Essays on Various Topics 1. Discuss the Characteristics of Developing Nations Some of the first things that come to mind when the term ‘developing nation’ is used are; backward, third-world, primitive, poverty, disease, unfortunate, and sheltered. All societies at one time or another in their existence were, in fact, considered developing nations, some develop at a faster pace than others and some seem rather stagnant in growth. There are many explanations as to why this occurs, the main determinants being cultural beliefs, including family life and ties, and economical and political ideals. Individually as well as geographically, people, tribes, families, and villages in developing, or traditional, societies are extremely distant. The text sites the main areas of deficiency in these particular societies; isolation, illiteracy, and distrust. With the lack of integration with others outside of their own group, it makes it impossible to have any differing beliefs brought about and in turn, different languages and cultures as well. You can see how this can cause a problem when one is finally faced with someone from a surrounding tribe. All of their life they have been taught that there is no other way than the way they are living, then they are blindsided with other languages and beliefs that they are not prepared to comprehend. This poses a problem for individual groups who reside in an area where there are other groups live nearby, and share a common ground of some sort for hunting or recreation of some sort, it can be a major cause of conflict. It is also noted that the combination of these issues has a snowballing result that follows; there is at first an inability to communicate with one another, which in turn brings suspicion, distrust, and detachment, which in turn brings further isolation, and causes the cycle to repeat itself over and over again. A vital makeup of life in a developing nation is a tribe or a village. Tribes are primari...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

International Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Security - Essay Example The conflict between Israel and Palestine is mainly facilitated by the religious disparity seen in the region with the Palestine being Arabs and the Israeli people being Jewish Christians. This essay will look at the international security situation in Israel while referring to the information from the various wars and conflicts between the country and other nations, the internal conflicts that have lasted for years and the role played by various countries in either assisting or resisting its attacks on other countries (Slater, 2006). Israel has been in conflict with Egypt, Jordan and also with Palestine with the peace talks and reconciliation process yielding little despite the effort that has been put by the international bodies to end the conflicts. The conflicts have been due to border issues and the control of fertile areas, the failure to recognize some people and regions and the control of Jerusalem and certain Israeli settlements. One of the most enduring conflicts in the history of Israel is the one with Palestine. This can be dated back to about one hundred years ago with the same arising from the right to own the land between the Eastern Shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan. The Palestinians who are few and less armed when it comes to military empowerment have witnessed about one hundred years of suppression and occupation of the land which they considered as theirs by the Israelis. The suffering and loss that has been caused by the occupation of the land has led to their fight to be recognized as a state with their struggles having little fruits to be seen. The Jews on the other hand refer to the land they have been fighting for as the land of their fore fathers and so it is their rightful inheritance that should be given to them without much fighting or conflict. Having a two state solution has been one of the options that has been proposed to

Monday, February 3, 2020

Fashion brand Feedback Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fashion brand Feedback - Essay Example The paper "Fashion brand Feedback" is the feedback on Fashion brand. Consistency - When consumers come back to a business for repeat sales, they usually expect to receive the same level of quality as they did the first time. For this season, our existing client reported the collection is too Asian, and therefore, different from the collection they bought last season. Uniqueness- Although the collection has the targeted design, some clients love the golden jacket and golden dress, while some other clients love white long dress. After removing the characters, we still learnt from our clients that some of our pieces have little differences from the collections of our competitors. But most of clients feel that it is better to remove the Japanese characters from the collection. Generally, The designs are interesting in terms of shape, lengths, and volumes, but some of the models like the jumpsuit are not appreciated by the clients; this is because the pieces look easy to wear, but they ar e hard to sell. Color schemes used for this season are black, white and gold; these colors work well than other colors. The buyers complain that the price is higher than their budget; given that the pieces are not made in Italy, the client expects that the prices should be considerably lower. Another reason why the sales are low is that the brand is new and people have not got used to it; people are less likely to buy if the brand is emerging. For this reason, therefore, high price could make the brand less competitive.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Walmart: Internal and External Analysis

Walmart: Internal and External Analysis Founded in 1962 by Sam Walton, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is one of the pioneers of discount retailing, along with Kmart and Target. Wal-Mart in US has been solely responsible for selling 35 per cent of all pet food, 24 per cent of all toothpaste, the largest volume of jewellery, groceries, DVDs, CDs, toys, guns, diapers, sporting goods, bedding and much, much more (Ramaswamy, 2004 cited in Hanson, 2008, p. 580-581). The companys success has resulted in many constantly observing it for new wisdom on management and strategy. But the recent years proved to be challenging for Wal-Mart as analysts are doubtful of the companys ability to maintain the pace of growth that it has shown in the previous years. Wal-Mart has to face competition from big players like Carrefour, Metro and Tesco as well as new entrants such as Dollar General. Besides that, Wal-Mart has taken advantage of its massive base of power to force suppliers to do more for less. Employees are also dissatisfied with the companys lack of employee welfare. External Environment Wal-Mart is one of the major players in the retailer industry. It has its own store brands in addition to selling the national brands in US. Being the main retailer in US, it has garnered enough power to negotiate the prices with the suppliers. Recently, it has an image issue due to the lawsuits it is facing, the loss of jobs indirectly linked to it as well as the declaration of bankruptcy or the shutting down of many retailers and manufacturer. Sociological Factors The giant retailer has been accused of paying its employees as low as US$8.23 which amounted being below the federal poverty line for a family of three. The company has also been sued for forcing its employees to work overtime for free. Another lawsuit against Wal-Mart is about the discrimination of women in top management. While about 90 per cent of Wal-Mart associates are women, only 15 per cent are in the top management positions. It is also suggested that Wal-Mart may be hiring illegal immigrants in violation of the law. Ethical Factors Wal-Mart is such a powerful company that its decisions will have a direct impact on all its suppliers and might even result in them filing for bankruptcy or shutting down, causing thousands to lose their jobs. In an ethical way, the retailer does not weigh the consequences or try to reduce the impact as long as the decision is beneficial to itself. Industry Environment Potential Threats of Substitutes Small -scale retailers such as Dollar General which catered to the low-income customers are proving to be among the companies that Wal-Mart needs to be wary of. While the target market seems to be the fastest growing segments of the population in US, the suppliers are also generally satisfied working with Dollar General, as compared to Wal-Mart and its suppliers. Intensity of Rivalry (International Market) Penetrating into the international market has been quite difficult for Wal-Mart because it is not as powerful and reputable as it is in US, unlike the major international players such as Carrefour, Metro and Tesco. There are more competitors that Wal-Mart has to face in the international market. Competitor Current Strategies Competitors like Carrefour are using their longer experience in the international market to their advantage. Carrefour has been accused of leaning on suppliers to choke Wal-Marts supply lines. Another strategy Carrefour employs is to demonstrate a new variation of the Everyday Low Price where its employees are found in Wal-Marts parking lots to distribute fliers, showing price comparisons with the prices at Wal-Mart at an almost real-time basis. Assumptions Major retail players like Carrefour and Tesco believe that they have the upper-hand in the international market as they are more experienced and understand the markets better. Besides that, they already have established reputations among the suppliers and will be more credible as a retailer as compared to Wal-Mart. Internal Environment Reputation with Customers By providing low prices for customers especially those living in the rural areas, many are grateful that they can save up. In addition, Wal-Mart has become so powerful that it is able to sell well-known brands at lower prices and thus proving the superior value it brings to its customers. Capabilities Wal-Mart is equipped with first-hand information about consumer preference data by having suppliers to attach remote frequency devices (RFID) technology in all their packaging to track individual items sold in the store. To improve efficiency of all business transactions with the suppliers, Wal-Marts suppliers also have to an electronic data interchange (EDI) called Retail Link that will track all business transactions with the giant retailer. Core Competency In the recent years, most of the sales of more than 30,000 suppliers are done through Wal-Mart and this puts the retailer in a very favourable position for negotiation of the prices of the products. With great foresight about the retail industry, the company is always ahead of the rest especially in terms of efficiency and delivering its promise to its customers. Stakeholders of Wal-Mart Suppliers The suppliers have become over- reliant on Wal-Mart and need the retailer more than the retailer needs them. Thus when Wal-Mart is determining the prices and thus drawing out significant price concessions from its suppliers, they are willing to comply and absorb any additional prices to make the giant retailer appease. Besides that, the suppliers also have to meet the terms set by Wal-Mart, such as the automated technology demands to have the Retail Link for their business dealings with Wal-Mart and the RFID technology in all their packaging. Suppliers are also expected to show up just when they are needed in the case of deliveries as they will be due for payment for any delivery that they miss or delay. Employees Employees have sued Wal-Mart for numerous reasons, showing their dissatisfactions with the company. Wal-Mart has been accused of making the employees work overtime without any allowance, paying low wages and involved in unfair labour practice against women in separate occasions. SWOT (S)trengths Has its own logistics as well as its own trucks and a private satellite A systematic and controlled management practice with the suppliers First-hand data about customer preference, more insight into the target market (W)eaknesses Wal-Marts image problem where the supplier are intimidated by it Ignores price increase- resulted in the suppliers shutting down, be forced into a merger/ transfer the production overseas Indirectly linked to thousands losing their jobs (O)pportunities Wal-Mart as a willing teacher, constantly educating the suppliers with new technique to tackle cost control and efficiency more would be ready to work with it (T)hreats Unreliable employees because of how they are treated by Wal-Mart Upstart chains like Dollar General contesting Wal-Marts position in the US retail market Review of Present Situation Though Wal-Mart is a powerful retailer in US and around the world, it does not maintain a positive image with its suppliers and the public. It may be looked upon in cases where people analyse its success but people may remember the negative aspects of the company better. Recommendations Create a positive image of Wal-Mart To avoid being blamed for all the jobs lost when a supplier could not live up to Wal-Marts expectations, the retailer should try to such situations whenever it can. For example, it could compromise with a supplier regarding the prices of the stocks when the prices increase. Other than that, it can donate to charitable organisations as a way of showing that the retailer also cares and gives back to the society. Wal-Mart could also create a fund to aid jobless people until they get another job. Gain employees loyalty References Ramaswamy, K. (2004). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.: Dominating Global Retailing. In D. Hanson, P. J. Dowling, M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland R. E. Hoskisson (Eds.) Strategic Management: Competitiveness Globalisation (pp. 577-590). Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Tsao, A. (2003, September 26). Wal-Marts Stock: No Bargain Here. BusinessWeek Online. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2003/nf20030929_9676_db014.htm What Influenced Georgian Style and its Features? What Influenced Georgian Style and its Features? Introduction Georgian style is a style in the architecture, interior design, and decorative arts of Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. The term â€Å"Georgian† gets its name from four kings of England who reigned in Britain from 1714-1830. All of them were named George. (DesignIntuit, 2001) Although the George did not have an impact on the style, they perpetuated a movement that is different from the popular Italian and French Baroque style. â€Å"Georgian is a term usually associated in the popular mind with refined furniture, elegant clothes, buildings of deceptive simplicity, classical music, decorous prose, and country houses set in pleasing parks.† (Georgian Housestyle, Ingrid Cranfield). In essence, Georgian is not a style by itself, but an era during that many developments and changes happened in both architecture and interior design. (Worldguide, 2015) Early Georgian style: Influence of classicism Each architect or designer has his own ideas and individual approach. However, all of them had something common: they were heavily influenced by elements of ancient Rome and Greece. In other words, they were driven by the same motivated idea: to recreate the antique classical world. Classicism was considered as godlike: it reproduced the building blocks of God’s creation and the accords of nature. Furthermore, this (Georgian) period is defined as â€Å"an era of refined neoclassical trends†. (Worldguide, 2015) As it was mentioned earlier, the Georgian style was highly influenced by classicism. Young British aristocrats (including architects, designers and furniture makers) in the 17th and 18th centuries took the â€Å"Grand Tour† of European countries. These â€Å"Grand Tours† made the influential classes follow classical traditions of architecture and design. However, the Baroque used classical ornamentation and decor in a very open ended way. (David Ross, 2015) However, the British employed these motifs in an inflexible and calm way. (Worldguide, 2015) If Baroque is too much, Georgian classicism is a grace. Early Georgian style: Influence of Palladinism Besides classicism, there was another style that had a very strong impact on the Georgian style. It is a Palladinism, â€Å"a philosophy of design based on the writings and work of Andreas Palladio†. (David Ross, 2015) He is an Italian architect of the 16th century who recreated the design and proportions of the buildings of antique Rome. (Worldguide, 2015) Famous English architect Inigo Jones brought the Georgian style to Britain in the 17th century. (Worldguide, 2015) Palladinism was a significant factor in the early Georgian style. There was a proportion-based Palladian school of design that dominated British architecture from the mid-1720s to the early 1750s. It was rich and graceful, and there were Roman temple facades and pillars. In addition, a mathematical formulae was used for a building’s proportion. However, after 1750 (Dan Cruickshank, 2011) or from around 1760 (Worldguide, 2015), English architects James Stuart, Sir William Chambers and Scottish architect Robert Adam were exposed to a clearer style of classicism around Britain. They were inspired by the archaeological discoveries at Pompei and Herculanium. This new information about Greek and Roman architecture brought about a neoclassical revolution in taste. This emphasises on neoclassicism that became more widespread for design for the duration of the mid-Georgian period, which was until 1800 (Dan Cruickshank, 2011). Early Georgian style: Examples James Stuart One of the best examples of neoclassicism is James Stuart (1713-1788). He went on various â€Å"Grand Tours† of many European cities like other architects at that time. While he was studying in Greece, his work was inevitably influenced by clear Greek motifs. Due to these studies, he got the nickname â€Å"Athenian† Stuart. In addition, he published â€Å"Antiquities of Athens† in separate books from 1762. (Worldguide, 2015) On the picture below shows an example of his work: (St James’s Square, London) Sir William Chambers Sir William Chambers (1723-1796) is one of the architects representing the mid-Georgian period. He was born in Sweden to Scottish parents. His architectural practise was in London in the 1750s. Moreover, Sir William spent time in China, which gives an explanation why his neoclassicism was mixed with Chinese touches and elements. The name of the technique is known as chinoiserie, and it enjoyed modest popularity in Britain that time. He also showed Greek and Roman characteristics of French neoclassicism. (Worldguide, 2015) (Chinese Pagoda in Kew Gardens, London and Somerset House, London) Robert Adam One more example is Robert Adam (1728-1992). He was born in Fife, Scotland. He worked with his brother James on a style airier than the Palladian, using Egyptian and Gothic motifs with Roman decorations. His artworks were symmetrical but not as much as Palladian proportions. Furthermore, he was known to show motifs as â€Å"ribbons, wreaths, sphinx and griffins, ovals and hexagons etc†. This style was famous as the Adam style. (Worldguide, 2015) (Syon House, West London) Late Georgian style Late Georgian style is known as Regency and was popular during the reign of the British Prince Regent from 1811 to 1820. (The Editors of Britannica, 2015 and Worldguide, 2015) Actually, the Regency style recollected neoclassical elements, but it was opened more to Greek, Egyptian, Asian and French influences than it was before. This style is much heavier in ornamentation than earlier Georgian styles, and building facades were often covered with stucco plaster than noticeable brick. Moreover, interiors were more open and light, and windows became larger. In my personal opinion, the Regency style (Late Georgian style) is akin to a bridge between early Georgian design and approaching Victorian era. Henry Holland For instance, Henry Holland (1745-1806) was the most leading architect of the late Georgian period. (Worldguide, 2015) Holland’s designs was influenced by Roman, Greek and Egyptian forms and the Empire styles of late 18th century France as well. His style is simpler and more academic. (Sloane Street and Sloane Square, West London) Features of Georgian style Landscape There are many characteristics defining the Georgian period. One of the main features is terrace. The 18th century (David Ross, 2015) was a time of great success of urban developments. Houses had a public and private function. Unfortunately, it meant that there was a need to put a lot of houses into a small space. It lead to the creation of the terrace. The terrace allowed a whole street to have a sense of architectural completeness, also keeping small sizes of houses. Terraces used to take a few forms; typically laid out in straight lines or in quadrangles around a central garden area, or in curves or oval â€Å"circuses†. In addition, these developments gave birth of the townhouses practical housing built in lengthy, well-ordered terraces, which made boulevard look like neat architectural elements. (Worldguide, 2015) These townhouses were usually four levels in height and made of brick. However, during that period (18th century) the rich were increasingly wealthier and as a result, they began investing money into their households. Wealthy landlords used their huge land to create designed parks, and those parks were called â€Å"country houses†. (David Ross, 2015) These estates were full of reproductions of classical temples and additional architectural pieces: grottoes, bridges, and that group of fragments called â€Å"follies†. Basically, these parks carried on the classical philosophy. Architecture Furthermore, there are other common architectural elements, such as symmetrical form, classical entrances, glass fanlights, large four-sided rooms, sash windows, huge exterior symmetrical stairways, internal hall stairway, pediment door and geometric decorations. (DesignIntuit, 2001) Shape is a main significant feature of this style. The square is â€Å"prominent† (DesignIntuit, 2001), and shapes are classical. The foundation of Georgian proportion was usually geometrical, with the central block of the building â€Å"often augmented by hyphens and wings† (Wentworthstudio, 2015) Homes were only symmetrical. There was not usually an even number of windows (five across for house). This did not allow asymmetry around the middle window of the building. Sash windows –â€Å"panes divided by wooden bars† (Worldguide, 2015) – were common. In addition, windows were quadrilateral (DesignIntuit, 2001) and had the same width (Worldguide, 2015). However, their height was various from the first floor to the last one. Second floor windows were the tallest ones, while ground floor and third floor windows were shorter, and the windows on the top were almost four-sided. Every Georgian house door is groundwork and supported by monuments. (DesignIntuit, 2001) There was a window on the top of the door, and it was separated by a structure called a transom. (Worldguide, 2015) There was typically a hip roof, sometimes with dormers. It was very popular with Christopher Wren. Moreover, a more asymmetrical gable roof would be inappropriate at all. (Wentworthstudio, 2015) Interior design and decorative arts In the Georgian period, there was a significant rise in popularity with regards to interior decoration. (Britannica,2015) When you look at Georgian interiors, think about those architectural elements that are inside – large furnace and doorways, and well-balanced proportioned rooms. In addition to architecture and interior design, there were great achievements in the decorative arts. For instance, furniture design met many styles and approaches, ranging from the classical influence, to the straight and simple lines etc. Conclusion Sadly, that period could not last. Victorian morality transformed architecture and other designs because their idea was about adopting gothic style as a national one due to the fact that it was a native design for the Great Christian Empire of Britain. (Dan Cruickshank, 2011) To sum up, the Georgian period, especially architecture left many masterpieces and a variation of styles and ideas. Moreover, the cities and urban quarters created that time (Bath and Bloomsbury in London) are still models of comfortable urban living. Bibliography â€Å"Georgian Style†, David Ross, 2015 (http://www.britainexpress.com/architecture/georgian.htm) â€Å"The Georgian Style of British Colonial Annapolis†, DesignIntuit, 2001 (http://www.designintuit.com/issue0002/focus/ghistory.html) â€Å"The Georgian Era of Great Britain†, Worldguide, 2015 (http://www.worldguide.eu/wg/index.php?StoryID=148ArticleID=21368) â€Å"Georgian architecture: a classical re-education†, Dan Cruickshank, 2011 (http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/sep/11/georgian-architecture-british) â€Å"Historic styles: Georgian style†, Wentworthstudio, 2015 (http://www.wentworthstudio.com/historic-styles/georgian/) â€Å"Georgian architecture†, Britannica, 2015 (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/230322/Georgian-style) 1 Fast Dissolving Drug Delivery Systems: A Brief Overview Fast Dissolving Drug Delivery Systems: A Brief Overview 1.1 Introduction to fast dissolving drug delivery system Fast dissolving drug delivery systems have rapidly gained acceptance as an important new way of administering drugs. There are multiple fast-dissolving OTC and Rx products on the market worldwide, most of which have been launched in the past 3 to 4 years. There have also been significant increases in the number of new chemical entities under development using a fast-dissolving drug delivery technology. Rapidly dissolving dosage forms have acquired great importance in the pharmaceutical industry because of their unique properties. Rapidly dissolving dosage forms are also called quick-dissolving delivery systems; quick-disintegrating, orally disintegrating, mouth dissolve dosage forms; or melt-in-mouth dosage forms. However, the function and concept of all these dosage forms are similar. In less than one minute, these dosage forms disintegrate or dissolve in the salivary fluids of the oral cavity, releasing the drug and inactive ingredients. Most of the drug is swallowed with the saliva where subsequent absorption takes place in the gastrointestinal tract. By definition, a solid dosage form that dissolves or disintegrates quickly in the oral cavity, without the need for the administration of water, is known as an oral fast-dissolving dosage form. Salient Features of Fast Dissolving Drug Delivery System Ease of administration for patients who are mentally ill, disabled and uncooperative. Requires no water Quick disintegration and dissolution of the dosage form. Overcomes unacceptable taste of the drugs. Can be designed to leave minimal or no residue in the mouth after administration and also to provide a pleasant mouth feel. Allows high drug loading. Ability to provide advantages of liquid medication in the form of solid preparation. Adaptable and amenable to existing processing and packaging machinery Cost- effective [5-9]. 1.2 Characteristics of Fast Dissolving Delivery System [5] 1.2.1 Ease of administration Fast Dissolving Delivery Systems are easy to administer and handle hence, leads to better patient compliance. Usually, elderly people experience difficulty in swallowing the conventional dosage forms (tablets, capsules, solutions and suspensions) because of tremors of extremities and dysphasia. Fast Dissolving Delivery Systems may offer a solution for these problems. 1.2.2 Taste of the medicament As most drugs are unpalatable, mouth dissolving delivery systems usually contain the medicament in taste masked form. Delivery systems dissolve or disintegrate in patients mouth, thus releasing the active ingredients which come in contact with the taste buds and hence, taste masking of the drugs becomes critical to patient compliance. 1.2.3 Hygroscopicity Several fast dissolving dosage forms are hygroscopic and cannot maintain physical integrity under normal condition from humidity which calls for specialized product packaging [10].  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.2.4 Mouth feel Mouth feel is critical, and patients should receive a product that feels pleasant. Any large particles from the disintegrating tablet that are insoluble or slowly soluble in saliva would lead to an unpleasant gritty feeling. This can be overcome by keeping the majority of the particles below the detectable size limit. In some cases, certain flavors can imbibe an improved mouth feel perception, resulting in a product that is perceived as being less gritty, even if the only change is the flavor. Effervescence can be added to aid disintegration and improve mouth feel by reducing the dryness of a product [11, 12]. 2. Introduction to fast dissolving oral thin film. 2.1 Definition Thin film drug delivery is a process of delivering drugs to the systemic circulation via a thin film that dissolves when in contact with liquid, often referred to as a dissolving film or strip. Thin film drug delivery has emerged as an advanced alternative to the traditional tablets, capsules and liquids often associated with prescription and OTC medications. Similar in size, shape and thickness to a postage stamp, thin film strips are typically designed for oral administration, with the user placing the strip on or under the tongue or along the inside of the cheek. As the strip dissolves, the drug can enter the blood stream enterically, ducally or sublingually. The first commercial non-drug product to use thin films was the Listerine PocketPaks breath freshening strips. Since then, thin film products for other breath fresheners, as well as a number of cold, cough, flu and anti-snoring medications, have entered the marketplace. There are currently several projects in development that will deliver prescription drugs utilizing the thin film dosage form [13]. 2.2 Advantages of fast dissolving oral thin film The design of thin film, often referred to as Pharm Film, as an oral drug delivery technology offers several advantages over other modes of drug delivery, such as ingestible tablets, chewable tablets, orally dissolving tablets, softgels, liquids or inhalants[14]. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug via thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing, and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of the medicament. All tablet dosage forms, softgels and liquid formulations primarily enter the blood stream via the gastrointestinal tract, which subjects the drug to degradation from stomach acid, bile, digestive enzymes and other first pass effects. As a result, such formulations often require higher doses and generally have a delayed onset of action. Conversely, buccal and sublingual thin film drug delivery can avoid these issues and yield quicker onsets of action at lower doses. Thin film is more stable, durable and quicker dissolving than other conventional dosage forms. Thin film enables improved dosing accuracy relative to liquid formulations since every strip is manufactured to contain a precise amount of the drug. Thin film not only ensures more accurate administration of drugs but also can improve compliance due to the intuitive nature of the dosage form and its inherent ease of administration. These properties are especially beneficial for pediatric, geriatric and neurodegenerative disease patients where proper and complete dosing can be difficult. Thin films ability to dissolve rapidly without the need for water provides an alternative to patients with swallowing disorders and to patients suffering from nausea, such as those patients receiving chemotherapy. Thin film drug delivery has the potential to allow the development of sensitive drug targets that may otherwise not be possible in tablet or liquid formulations. From a commercial perspective thin film drug delivery technology offers an opportunity to extend revenue lifecycles for pharmaceutical companies whose drug patent is expiring and will soon be vulnerable to generic competition. Advantages of Oral Thin Film Thin elegant film Convenient dosing Fast disintegration Enhance stability Quick dissolving Improve patient compliance Rapid release Life cycle management mucoadhesion Taste masking unobstructive No risk of choking Various sizes and shapes No water needed 2.3 Need for fast dissolving thin film drug development 2.3.1 Taste masking An important aspect of thin film drug delivery technology is the masking of the often bitter and poor taste of drug formulations[14].One method of taste-masking is encapsulation, the coating of drug particles with a polymeric covering sufficient to mask the taste of the drug particle while maintaining the ability to release the drug for absorption. Encapsulation is an efficient method for combining a high ratio of drug-to-non-drug elements in the taste-masked particle. Another method is the use of an ion exchange resin to bind the drug, forming a resinate that is less bitter than the drug alone. Shivang Chaudhary,final year M.S.Pharm student of Indian NAtional Institute of Pharmaceutical Education Research (NIPER) has formulated Taste masked Quick melting oral strip(QMOS) for quick onset of erection, in which they got success in bitter taste masking of sildenfil citrate via its inclusion complexation within B-Cyclodextrin by simple kneading method. 2.3.2 Drug content uniformity Drug content uniformity is a requirement for all dosage forms, particularly those containing low dose highly potent drugs. To uniquely meet this requirement, thin film formulations contain uniform dispersions of drug throughout the whole manufacturing process[15].Since this criteria is essential for the quality of the thin film and final pharmaceutical dosage form, the use of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) was recommended to follow the manufacturing process[16]. 2.3.3 Avoiding drug degradation Sensitive drugs may degrade over time in an aqueous environment. Thin film formulations must ensure that the integrity of the drug remains constant over time [17]. To overcome these challenges, developers of thin film have created highly specialized unique and often proprietary processes to deliver drugs on thin film [18]. 2.4 Functionality of oral thin film Pharmaceutical companies and consumers alike have embraced OTFs as a practical and accepted alternative to traditional OTC medicine forms such as liquids, tablets, and capsules. OTFs offer fast, accurate dosing in a safe, efficacious format that is convenient and portable, without the need for water or measuring devices [19]. OTFs are typically the size of a postage stamp and disintegrate on a patients tongue in a matter of seconds for the rapid release of one or more APIs. The formulation of dissolvable films is customarily facilitated through aqueous polymer matrices that span a wide molecular weight (MW) range, thereby providing flexibility to achieve certain physical properties. With the selection of appropriate polymer excipients, these properties can be tailored to meet specific API-loading needs and dissolution rates. To date, the commercial launch of OTFs is primarily in OTC products addressing therapeutic categories such as cough/cold, sore throat, and antacid/gas relief as well as a number of nutritional supplement applications [19]. In compliance with the appropriate monographs, current products deliver a specified API dose that is immediately released and ingested. Some drug forms are more easily used in OTFs than others (soluble versus non soluble), but we can expect API concentrations to increase as new OTF formulations are developed. The capabilities of the base technology to create dissolvable films continue to evolve. For example, a common misconception of the OTF format is that it is limited with regard to the loading capacity of APIs. Some researchers reference a limit of 30 mg of API content as the maximum concentration. A more accurate statement would be that OTFs have the capability to load APIs up to 50% of the unit dose mass, as demonstrated by Novartis Consumer Healths Gas-X thin film, which contains 62.5 mg of simethicone per dose [20]. Some drug substances may be absorbed more rapidly through the oral mucosal and esophageal tissues via OTF formats during ingestion. Because the drug enters directly into the bloodstream and avoids hepatic first-pass metabolism, bioavailability may be improved, and the drug can be administered in smaller doses. Smaller doses translate to fewer side effects and potentially improved patient compliance. Oral mucosal delivery via OTFs could become a preferential delivery method for therapies in which rapid absorption is desired, including those used to manage pain, allergies, sleep difficulties, and central nervous system disorders. Functional film properties controlled during manufacturing Thickness Width Drug concentration residual volatiles tensile strnth disintegration rates dissolution rates 2.5 oral thin film as Strategic therapeutic categories OTF formats can be considered for any therapeutic category in which an oral solid, liquid, or ODT format is currently offered. Ideal applications are those that use drug compounds that are potent and possess a narrow therapeutic range [21]. In addition, OTFs are proven to be a more beneficial platform for compromised populations such as children or the elderly where a quick, well-tolerated platform aids administration [22]. From a strategic standpoint, a group of therapeutic categories stand out as leading applications for the OTF format to expand beyond commercial OTC products on the market today (see sidebar, Strategic therapeutic categories for oral thin films). Development of a branded prescription OTF product for smoking cessation would set a precedent for the format, much like the launch of transdermal drug delivery patches for smoking cessation did in the 1990s. Strategic therapeutic categories for oral thin films Contraception Hormone replacement Pain management Allergy and asthama Nausea Central nervous system disorders Anti-inflammatory Gastro-intestinal Sleep aids Veterinary medicines and vitamins 3. Drugs availability in market as a film/strip The use of thin-film strips is of growing interest in the pharmaceutical sector following the success of Listerine PocketPaks ® in the United States. Thin-film strip technology uses a range of water-soluble polymers and is reported to be able to incorporate watersoluble, insoluble, or taste-masked ingredients. The film is manufactured as a continuous sheet and then cut into individual doses prior to packing. The major limitations to this technology are the relatively low doses that can be accommodated (approximately 30 mg) and its moisture sensitivity thus requiring specific unit-dose packaging to protect the product and ensure shelf life. Thin-film technology has primarily been used in over the- counter (OTC) products. 4. Market trends TCIs report also details the technology programs of 25 companies active in the development of Orally-Disintegrating Tablet technologies and 17 active in the development of Oral Film technologies. Technology Catalysts forecasts the market for drug products in oral thin film formulations to be valued at $500 million in 2007 and could reach $2 billion by 2010. The first oral strip was developed by Pfizer (New York) as a mouth freshening product (Listerine pocket packs). Chloraseptic Relief Strips (distributed by Prestige Brands, Irvington, NY), Theraflu Thin Strips treat the most common symptoms of a cold in adults and children 12 and older and will be available in two cherry-flavoured treatment options: Long Acting Cough that quiets coughs for up to eight hours, and Multi-Symptom that, as well as tackling coughs, is said to provide temporary relief from a runny nose and sneezing, and soothes itchy, watery eyes and throat. Both will cost approximately $5.49 for a 12-strip pack. Meanwhile, Triaminic Thin Strips, for children ages 6-12, will also be available in two treatment options: Long Acting Cough that quiets coughs for up to eight hours, in cherry flavor, and Cough Runny Nose, in grape flavour. They will cost approximately $5.99 for a 16-strip pack, according to Novartis. 5. Formulation consideration 5.1. film forming polymer A variety of polymers are available for preparation of OS. The polymers can be used alone or in combination to obtain the desired strip properties. The film obtained should be tough enough so that there wont be any damage while handling or during transportation. The robustness of the strip depends on the type of polymer and the amount in the formulation [23]. On the other hand, fast dissolving strip dosage formshould have the property to disintegrate in seconds when placed in mouth and deliver the drug to the oral cavity instantaneously. A list of polymers and their properties are given in Table 5 [24-30]. As the strip forming polymer (which forms the platform for the OS) is the most essential and major component of the OS, at least 45%w/w of polymer should generally be present based on the total weight of dry OS [31]. Of the various polymers available, pullulan, gelatin and hypromellose are most commonly used for preparation of OS. Pullulan is a natural polymer obtained from non-animal origin and does not require chemical modification. This polymer provides highly clear and homogenous films. It has low oxygen permeability and low water content which makes it most suitable for production of OS [32]. Many times, mixtures of polymers are used to improve hydrophilicity, flexibility, mouth-feel and solubility characteristics of OS. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone films are brittle in nature and therefore copovidone is mixed with poly vinyl pyrrolidone for preparation of flexible fast disintegrating strips [33]. Combination of microcrystalline cellulose and maltodextrin has been used to formulate OS of piroxicam made by hot melt extrusion technique. In this case, microcrystalline cellulose is used to render the film non-sticky and smooth [34]. Microcrystalline cellulose was also used to decrease the disintegration time and improve the dissolution of drug from the OS [35]. Property of polymer non-toxic non-irritant devoid of leachable impurities good wetting property spreadability property readily available Should not be very expensive Should exhibit sufficient peel, shear and tensile strengths. Various polymers can be employed to modulate the disintegration property of the oral strip. This is especially used in case of slowly disintegrable oral bioadhesive strips or patches that need to be retained in intact form for longer duration in the oral cavity. The bioadhesive polymer used in such formulations imparts the adhesive property to the strip such that it adheres to buccalmucosa to deliver the drug for prolonged period. Bioadhesive polymer should ideally adhere quickly to the buccal mucosa and should have sufficient mechanical strength. Polymers used for OS should have good shelf life and they should not aid in causing secondary infections in the oral mucosa or dental regions. It would be ideal to have a polymer that would have local enzyme inhibition action along with penetration enhancing property. The details of properties of bioadhesive or mucoadhesive polymers and their applications are discussed elsewhere [36-43]. Mucoadhesive polymers include polycarbophil, cellulos e derivatives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, poly(acrylic acid) derivatives, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxylethyl cellulose, hyaluronic acid, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, guar gum, carrageenan, sodiumalginate, chitosan, poly(ethylene oxide), poly (ortho esters), poly (hydroxyl butyrate), poly(cyano acrylates), polyphosphazenes, poly (vinyl alcohol) etc. Second generation mucoadhesive polymers include thiolated polymers. They are multifunctional polymers consisting of hydrophilic macromolecules having free thiol groups on the polymer backbone. The polymer forms disulfide bonds with cysteine-rich subdomains of mucus glycoproteins. Corium International has developed a new class of adhesive hydrogels (Corplex„ ¢) [44]. There are a number of marketed products available that are based on mucoadhesion phenomena. Oramoist ® is a Timed Release oral disk that adheres to the roof of the mouth and has a moisturizing effect for about 4 h [44]. It is recommended for dry mouth syndrome (xerostomia). Compeed ® is another formulation that is intended to treat cold sore [46]. Table Polymer: Hydoxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) Synonym:  Methocel, Metolose,  Benecel  (Hypromellose) Description: It is a odorless, tasteless and white or creamy white fibrous or granular powder Molecular weight: 10,000-1,500,000 Solubility:  Soluble in cold water,forming a viscous colloidal  solution, insoluble in  chloroform, ethanol Polymer:  Hydroxy propyl cellulose Synonym:  Hydroxyl propyl ether,  hyprolose, Klucel, Nisso HPC. Description:  It is a white to slightly yellow  colored, odorless and  tasteless powder. It is stable  material Molecular weight:  50,000-1,250,000 Solubility:  It is freely soluble in water  below 38  °C forming a  smooth, clear, colloidal  solution. Hydroxypropyl  cellulose is soluble in many  cold and hot polar organic  solvents such as absolute  ethanol, methanol, isopropyl  alcohol and propylene glycol Polymer:  Starch and modified starch Synonym:  Amido, amylum, PharmGel,  Fluftex W, Instant pure-Cote,  Melogel etc. Description:  It is an odorless, tasteless,  fine, white powder. Molecular weight:  50,000-160,000 Solubility:  It is insoluble in cold  water and ethanol. It swells in  water by about 5 to 10% at  37  °C Polymer:  Pullulan Synonym:  Pullulane, 1, 6 ÃŽÂ ± linked  maltotriose Description:  It is available as white,  odorless tasteless, stable  powder Molecular weight:  8000-2,000,000 Solubility:  It is soluble in hot as well as  cold water Polymer:  Pectin Synonym:  Citrus pectin, Methopectin,  pectin, pectinic acid   Description:  It occurs as a yellowishwhite,  odorless powder with  mucilaginous taste. Molecular weight:  30,000-100,000 Solubility:  It is soluble in water but  insoluble in most of the  organic solvents. Polymer:  Gelatin Synonym:   Byco, cryogel, Instagel,  Solugel Description:  It occurs as light amber to  faintly yellow colored,  vitreous, brittle solid. It is  ordorless, tasteless. Molecular weight:  15,000-250,000 Solubility:  Soluble in glycerin, acid and  alkali. Swells in water and  softens. It is soluble in hot  water Polymer:  Carboxy methyl cellulose Synonym: Akulell, Blanose, Aquasorh Description:  It is white, odorless powder Molecular weight:  90,000-700,000 Solubility: It is easily dispersed in water  to form a clear or colloidal  solution 5.2 Plasticizer Plasticizer is a vital ingredient of the OS formulation. It helps to improve the flexibility of the strip and reduces the brittleness of the strip. Plasticizer significantly improves the strip properties by reducing the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The selection of plasticizer will depend upon its compatibility with the polymer and also the type of solvent employed in the casting of strip. The flow of polymer will get better with the use of plasticizer and enhances the strength of the polymer [47, 48]. Glycerol, Propylene glycol, low molecular weight polyethylene glycols, phthalate derivatives like dimethyl, diethyl and dibutyl phthalate, Citrate derivatives such as tributyl, triethyl, acetyl citrate, triacetin and castor oil are some of the commonly used plasticizer excipients. Typically the plasticizers are used in the concentration of 0-20%w/w of dry polymer weight [49-57]. However inappropriate use of plasticizer may lead to film cracking, splitting and peeling of the strip [58-60]. It is also reported that the use of certain plasticizers may also affect the absorption rate of the drug [61]. 5.3 Active pharmaceutical ingredient The active substance is may be from any class of pharmaceutically active substances that can be administered orally or through the buccal mucosa, respectively. The OS technology has the potential for delivery of variety of APIs. However since the size of the dosage form has limitation, high dose molecules are difficult to be incorporated in OS. Generally 5%w/w to 30%w/w of active pharmaceutical ingredients can be incorporated in the OS [62]. Multivitamins up to 10%w/w of dry film weight was incorporated in the OS with dissolution time of less than 60 s [32]. APIs can also be added as milled, micronized or in the form of nanocrystals or particles depending upon the ultimate release profile desired. It is always useful to have micronized API which will improve the texture of the film and also for better dissolution anduniformity in the OS [63]. Some of the examples of suitable drug molecule that can be incorporated in the OS are listed in table-6. 5.4 sweetening agent Sweeteners have become the important part of the food products as well as pharmaceutical products intended to be disintegrated or dissolved in the oral cavity. Natural sweeteners as well as artificial sweeteners are used to improve the palatability of the mouth dissolving formulations. Sweetening agent such as Sugar, dextrose, lactose, mannitol, sucrose, xylitol, malitol, acesulfame potassium, talin, glycyrrhizin, sucralose, aspartame, saccharin etc. The classical source of sweetener is sucrose (derived from cane or beet in the form of liquid or dry state), dextrose, fructose, glucose, liquid glucose and maltose. The sweetness of fructose is perceived rapidly in the mouth as compared to sucrose and dextrose. Fructose is sweeter than sorbitol and mannitol and thus used widely as a sweetener. The artificial sweeteners have gained more popularity in food and pharmaceutical preparations. Saccharin,cyclamate and aspartame are the first generation of the artificial sweeteners followed by acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame which fall under the second generation artificial sweeteners. Acesulfame-K and sucralose have more than 200 and 600 time sweetness. Neotame and alitame have more than 2000 and 8000 time sweetening power as compared to sucrose. Rebiana which is a herbal sweetener, derived from plant Stevia rebaudiana (South American plant) has more than 200-300 time sweetness [64].The flavor quality of these artificial sweeteners is different than the natural sweeteners and may not be acceptable to the patients who are accustomed to the natural sugars. The amalgamation of sweeteners may lead to synergismand improvement in the taste of the formulations [65]. Aspartame was used for the preparation of oral strips of valdecoxib [66]. For the oral strip of piroxicam, mal todextrin was employed as  sweetening agent [67]. Generally sweeteners are used in the concentration of 3 to 6 %w/w either alone or in combination [68]. 5.5 flavoring agent Perception for the flavors changes from individual to individual depending upon the ethnicity and liking. The selection of flavor is also dependant on the type of drug to be incorporated in the formulation. For example, mint flavor is generally added in products used for gastric related ailments like indigestion. The acceptance of the oral disintegrating or dissolving formulation by an individual by and large depends on the initial flavor quality which is observed in first few seconds after the product has been consumed and the after taste of the formulation which lasts for at least about 10 min [69]. Flavoring agents can be selected from synthetic flavor oils, oleo resins, extract derived from various parts of the plants like leaves, fruits and flowers. Flavors can be used alone or in the combination. Peppermint oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, oil of nutmeg are examples of flavor oils while vanilla, cocoa, coffee, chocolate and citrus are fruity flavors. Apple, raspberry, cherry, pineapple are few examples of fruit essence type. The amount of flavor needed to mask the taste depends on the flavor type and its strength. Preferably up to 10%w/w flavors are added in the OS formulations. Cooling agents like monomethyl succinate can be added to improve the flavor strength and to enhance the mouth-feel effect of the product. Other cooling agents likeWS3, WS23 and Utracoll II can also be used in conjunction with flavors [68, 70]. 5.6 coloring agent Coloring agents may include FD C coloring agents, natural coloring agents, and natural juice concentrates, pigments such as titanium oxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide. (not exceeding concentration levels of 1%w/w) in OS .when some of the formulation ingredients or drugs are present in insoluble or suspension form [71,72]. 5.7 stabilizing and thickening agent The stabilizing and thickening agents are employed to improve the viscosity and consistency of dispersion or solution of the strip preparation solution or suspension before casting. Natural gums like xanthan gum, locust bean gum, carragenan and cellulosic derivatives can be used in the concentration up to 5%w/w as thickening agents and stabilizing agents [68]. Other ingredients such as surfactants and emulsifying agents are also added in small amount to improve the strip properties. 5.8 saliva stimulating agent The purpose of using saliva stimulating agents is to increase the rate of production of saliva that would aid in the faster disintegration of the rapid dissolving strip formulations. Generally acids which are used in the preparation of food can be utilized as salivary stimulants. Citric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, ascorbic acid and tartaric acid are the few examples of salivary stimulants, citric acid being the most preferred amongst them. These agents are used alone or in combination between 2 to 6%w/w of weight of the strip. Other OS ingredients such as sweeteners also act as salivary stimulants. Food grade sugars as well as synthetic sugars are useful salivary stimulants along with acidulents. Glucose, fructose, xylose, maltose, lactose are few examples of such sweeteners [73]. The resting salivary flow rate was 0.34 ml/min .but citric acid is capable to increase the salivary flow rate up to 1.68ml/min [73]. 6. Method of manufacturing of oral thin film One (or a combination) of the following processes may be used to manufacture the oral films [74]. Solvent casting Hot-melt extrusion Solid dispersion extrusion Rolling 6.1 Solvent Casting The oral film is preferably formulated using the solvent-casting method, whereby the water-soluble ingredients are dissolved to form a clear viscous solution. The API and other agents are dissolved in smaller amounts of the solution, and combined with the bulk. This mixture is then added to the aqueous viscous solution. The entrapped air is removed by vacuum. The resulting solution is cast as a film and allowed to dry, which is then cut into pieces of the desired size. Water-soluble hydrocolloids used to prepare films are: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), pullulan, sodium alginate, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) [75]. 6.2 Hot melt extrusion Hot melt extrusion (HME) is commonly used to prepare granules, sustained-release tablets, transderm

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Anatomy – Structure of the Pancreas

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: Structure of the Pancreas The pancreas is an elongated organ that lies behind and below the stomach. This mixed gland contains both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The predominant exocrine part consists of grape-like clusters of secretory cells that form sacs known as acini, which connect to ducts that eventually empty into the the first portion of the intestine called duodenum. The smaller part of the gland consists of isolated islands of endocrine tissue known as islets of Langerhans which are dispersed throughout the pancreas. Hormones Secreted by the Pancreas The most important hormones secreted by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. Both play a role in proper metabolism of sugars and starches in the body. Insulin promotes the movement of glucose and other nutrients out of the blood and into cells. When blood glucose rises, insulin, released from the beta cells causes glucose to enter body cells to be used for energy. Also, it sometimes stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver. Another pancreatic hormone, glucagon, promotes the movement of glucose into the blood when glucose levels are below normal. It causes the breakdown of stored liver glycogen to glucose, so that the sugar content of blood leaving the liver rises. Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and Metabolic syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the body begins to use fat as an energy source through glycogenolysis, for example, by transfer of lipids from adipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source. As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino cid uptake by body cells). In addition, it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. Glucagon, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. [1] The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is re leased into the bloodstream. Glucagon raises blood glucose levels. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level. Glucagon belongs to a family of several other related hormones. Somatostatin (also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)) is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones. Function of the Pancreas The pancreas is largely responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels. The normal clinical range of blood glucose levels is 70 to 150 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). The pancreas can measure blood sugar and if it is high or low, the pancreas releases a hormone to correct the level. Blood glucose must be maintained at a certain level for cells to neither gain or lose water. HEALTH TEACHING 1. Teach the patient sign and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia 2. Teach the patients about medication purpose, dosage, route, and possible side effects of all prescribed medications. . In patients with self-administer insulin, demonstrate patient the appropriate preparation and administration techniques. 4. Teach to the patient signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and emphasize the need for safety precautions because neuropathy decreased sensation can hide sense injuries 5. Tell to the patient the Prognosis of Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin resistance increases with age, After the fi rst few years of treatment, the majority of people with type 2 diabetes require more than one medicine to keep their blood sugar controlled 6. Teach the patient how to manage diabetes when he has a minor illness, such as a cold, or flu. 7. To encourage compliance with lifestyle changes, emphasize how blood glucose control affects long-term health. 8. Teach the patient how to care for his feet. 9. Advise him to wear comfortable, nonconstricting shoes and never to walk barefoot 10. To prevent diabetes, teach people at high risk to avoid risk factors †for example, maintaining proper weight and exercising regularly, teach to patients you can help to prevent type 2 diabetes by maintaining your ideal body weight, especially if you have a family history of diabetes. Diet and exercise have been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in people who are in the early stages of insulin resistance. If you already have been diagnosis Diabetes Mellitus type 2, you can delay or prevent complications by keeping tight control of your blood sugar. 11. Advise patients to have annual ophthalmologic examinations for early detection of diabetic retinopathy 12. Encourage the patient and his family to obtain additional information about Diabetes mellitus from nearby Diabetic foundations.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Apple

Choose an Emirate company of your choice and discuss its supply chain strategy. You need to cover the point while paying attention to the nature of its business; its monitors and future development of the business. . Choose a project of your choice which is related to the company you work for and discuss all important aspects that are associated with its achievement. Underline potential critical path, potential factors that affect the process management of your selected project. Lastly, bring forward your own recommendations in view of successful project management. Assessment criteria Structure: need to pay attention to clearly plan the ideas in logical manner that is insistent with the core topic.The basic parts-introduction, body and conclusion- must be underlined 2. Analysis: must pay attention to discussing all core ideas with appropriate link between theories and practice. There must be a clear link between the case study and the application of information conveyed by theory re lated to the topic discussed 3. Presentation: group involved in preparing the topic must show cohesive involvement in the preparation of all parts of the assignment. Apple Choose an Emirate company of your choice and discuss its supply chain strategy. You need to cover the point while paying attention to the nature of its business; its monitors and future development of the business. . Choose a project of your choice which is related to the company you work for and discuss all important aspects that are associated with its achievement. Underline potential critical path, potential factors that affect the process management of your selected project. Lastly, bring forward your own recommendations in view of successful project management. Assessment criteria Structure: need to pay attention to clearly plan the ideas in logical manner that is insistent with the core topic.The basic parts-introduction, body and conclusion- must be underlined 2. Analysis: must pay attention to discussing all core ideas with appropriate link between theories and practice. There must be a clear link between the case study and the application of information conveyed by theory re lated to the topic discussed 3. Presentation: group involved in preparing the topic must show cohesive involvement in the preparation of all parts of the assignment. Apple * History: * Apple is a company which produces computers and technological products like computers, mobiles . On April 1, 1976, the Apple computer was established . Steven Wozniak, a high school drop-out who worked for Hewlett-Packard, dabbled in computer-design and created what would become the Apple I. His high school buddy Steven Jobs, also a drop-out, worked for Atari and convinced him that the two should form a company to market the new computer, which eventually took off in 1977 with the Apple II. * * By 1980, the Apple III was released and their company employed several thousand workers.It began in Egypt in 1990 and produced their products in 1991. It began to produce the first computer Mac in Egypt but there is a disadvantage that faces the company in Egypt which is the high cost! * * The computers in this time were sold by 60,000 to 70,000 so few people bought it. The owner of the Egyptian company is called Mohamed Medhat . The company also in Egypt began to produce this com puter. In 1991 the company produces approximately by 1500 prices only. The company in Egypt doesn’t correct their wrong and still the high prices of computers raises up. * In 1991 the price of iMac is 35,000 L. E. It is too much. In 1992 Apple Company makes a high loss, because of the high prices. So they began to think in another way to reduce the cost of the company. They reduced the cost to half but they also made a lot of losses. Steve is still thinking how to save the company and began to make profits. * * * Mohamed Medhat followed him in his steps to save the company in the Middle East because in this time the only branch for Apple Company in the Middle East in Egypt only in this time, but now in Egypt and UAE.They began to produce new products by low cost so they can save their company and began to make high profits. Now in 2012 apple makes a great successful product than Microsoft and become the leader of the technological market Apple Company produces a lot of unique products like: Macbook _Macbook ProMacbook Air| Next-generation quad-core and dual-core Intel processors. The 13-inch MacBook  Pro now features a 2. 4GHz Intel Core i5 processor or the fastest dual-core processor available — the 2. 8GHz Intel Core i7. With Turbo Boost speeds up to 3. GHz, these processors allow the 13-inch MacBook  Pro to perform up to twice as fast as the previous generation. 1But we couldn’t leave fast enough alone. The new 15- and 17-inch models bring quad-core power to almost everything you do. The available 2. 5GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 processor — with Turbo Boost speeds up to 3. 6GHz and up to 8MB of shared L3 cache — enables these MacBook Pro models to run applications up to twice as fast as their top-of-the-line predecessors. 2| iPad ( 3G – Wifi)| In work Mail, Calendar, Notes, and Safari in a beautiful, thin and light design, so you stay productive anywhere.With easy, secure integration into business environments a nd a robust platform for app development, iPad is ready to start working when you are. In Education iPad inspires creativity and hands-on learning with features you won’t find in any other educational tool — on a device that students really want to use. Powerful built-in apps and apps from the App Store let students engage with content in interactive ways, find information in an instant, and access an entire library wherever they go. And now, with the introduction of Multi-Touch textbooks, iPad takes learning to a whole new level. iPod (Classic – Touch-Nano)| It used for listening music and people can also watch some movies. | Services: If we talk about the apple’s services . the company give to there customer a good services through selling the product and after purchasing the product . apple’s services contain (warranty on it products for along time (between 1 to10 years ) , hardware services for instance , mousse , keyboards , monitor , track pa d , printers, hard disk and Etc. . the services contain software services also , for instance operating system (OSX ) . that’s some services after purchasing . n other hand the service before purchasing . the sales person give the full information about the products to customers , make an offers to attract more and more customer , for instance in 2011 , there are many offers which the company made ,for example , to buy I phone and get I pod Nano with full accessories . and another one to buy any laptop and get ( software and full applications for free during the offer period) in usually you should to buy them software with 250 L. E and applications with 650 L. E . so it is very attractive and good offer . Apple company provide a good packaging to save it’s products .Vision Of Apple : Apple ignited the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and reinvented the personal computer in the 1980s with the Macintosh. Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. Mission Of Apple: Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.Apple campaign for I phone 5: This is the last marketing campaign for the newest product will be in the market next summer . This advertising tell the customer for a new generation of I phone ( I Phone 5 ) with a new feature and quality . the advertising tell the customer . the new I phone is totally different from the I phone 4 , 4S and has a changes in every things . This Advertising show that apple was more interesting and focus on its segment and target it seriously . using the full capacity to stratify the targeting market SWOT analysis for Apple company:Strengths : apple OSX ( op erating system ) is more strengths than PC , the OS of apple no virus can hit it and can work on it for along time , Apple OSX support the graphic programmer so the designers use the Apple OS , because it more professional and fast . OSX is a heavy duty operating system , can use for along time without corruption or errors , and other Strength point is Apple gets to set the specs in detail, and deliver to the customer through a controlled retail experience (Apple Store, Apple On-line Store) that helps them explain the value to the customer and extract a premium for that value.Weakness : Apple prices . the cost of apple products is very high so it can’t compete in the Market . Dell and HP compete it by the same products but with less prices . so it represent a big weakness point face the company in Egypt . other point , the there is a big problem in I pod Nano screen . the production team discover this problem after produce the product , so this problem lead to spend a lot of dollars to solve this problem , In addition this problem led the company to increase the price of music download form I Tunes . this led apple to spend by 10 million dollar to fixed this problem .Opportunity : Apple has the opportunity to develop its iTunes and music player technology into a mobile phone format. The Rokr mobile phone device was developed by Motorola. It has a colour screen, stereo speakers and a advance camera system. A version of Apple's iTunes music store has been developed for the phone so users can manage the tracks they store on it. Downloads are available via a USB cable, ands software on the handset pauses music if a phone call comes in. New technologies and strategic alliances offer opportunities for Apple.Threats : The biggest threat to IT companies such as Apple is the very high level of competition in the technology markets. Being successful attracts competition, and Apple works very hard on research and development and marketing in order to retain its co mpetitive position. The popularity of iPod and Apple Mac are subject to demand, and will be affected if economies begin to falter and demand falls for their products. PESTEL analysis: Economic : apple company effected by the economic situation , the economic crises effect on the company production and company sales . he apple products have a high cost so it has a big related with the economic . ,for example, the company after the revolution , recorded a big loses in its sales and profit . after the revolution people avoid to buy the luxury products like I pod and I pad . apple recorded in 2011 loses in Egypt more than 50 Million . and in the economic crises in USA . apple recorded loses by 700 Million dollar . Technology : apple company strongly effected by technology factor , the company should to has the final technology tools that the world use it in this time . pple company every time develop their products with new feature and technology , for example I phone developed to 3GS t o 4G and finally 4GS and 5G soon . other products like I pad develop it to work with the third generation of communications (3G) . apple now is the best company all over the world use the touch technique in its products and devises . Political : Could be new laws or regulations , for Example in last time the GPS ( Navigation system ) in Egypt is not allow to use so apple stopped this program in Egypt tell 2008 and after this the government allow to use the navigation system In Egypt . o apple supported their devises by the GPS system . Social : Means social trends. If you are a phone company, Apple's entry into the cellphone market created a demand for touch screen phones, (about time! ) for example. Thus Nokia and co. had to respond. (I like Nokia, but they should have been ahead of the game in this one, so I'm glad Apple kicked them). Environmental factors: environmental factors include the weather and climate change. Changes in temperature can impact on many industries including farming, tourism and insurance.Apple may not effect with climate strongly but it may be effected by tourism , this will effect all process of the company ( production process and sell process ) Customer Analysis: Demographic ( Age – Gender – Family size – Life cycle or Income ) Apple company make different products to different ages , for instant they made I pod Nano for the children and youth and after that they made I pad for businessmen and the youth can also use it form 15 to 60 years old , they made also I Mac form grand ages .Apple is completely successful to target different ages with different product . Apple not forget to make a different between gender or sex, for example they made MacBook Air for female and made MacBook Bro for male, and also in colors they produce some laptop’s covers with pink color to target girls or female . Apple produce different products to different age and life – cycle groups . Apple company not forget to target income . they are produce a different products with different prices to be fit to any individual depend on his income , for xample there is I pod classic with 2000 pound and there is one with 3500 pound for I pod touch so any one can buy any thing from Apple depending on his income. Psychographic ( social class and life stile or personality) If we divide the market to class A – B – C , Apple target one or two from this segments . Apple will target the class A , because they provide a high quality and good products with high cost so the class A is the more segment will use apple’s products after that class B a few of them will use apple’s products .Behavior ( User Status – User Rate – Loyalty – Benefit – Occasion ) User statue : apple market divide into ex-user , who use apple’s products from along time , and first –time user who is the first time to use apple products , and potential user and we have a regular ap ple user how is use apple a lot of times . User rate : apple market divide into light , medium and heavy product user of apple . Loyalty : divide on completely loyalty that is mean some one buy all brands form one company . or example, buy I phone I pod , I pad that is mean he buy all things he want form apple , he/she very loyalty to the company Some-what loyalty , buy two or three products from apple and them go to buy any thing form different brand , for example , some one buy I phone and I pod then he shift to buy Nokia and HTC. and we have finally no loyalty , who didn’t buy any thing form apple . Target Market : There are a lot types of market targeting (undifferentiated – differentiated – concentrated – micro ) market , apple use differentiated market ( segmentation ) .It is produce different products to one or more segment (class A and a few of class B) . Differentiation and positioning Competitive advantage : apple have a lot of competitors in it ’s fields for example , Mobil phone there are a lot of competitor (Nokia – Samsung – HTC , Blackberry ) , in computers the biggest competitor is ( Microsoft ) in entertainment field there is ( Mp3,4) . so apple should to have an competitive advantage to be able to compete the other and should to have a unique feature in it’s product to be different . it should to have a good sales offer and this give it is to make a high profit and attract a lot of consumers .Apple now a days try to produce a products with a low prices to attract more and more and gain a more profit , so it can compete all competitor . Position strategy : Apple should to know the consumer the place of there products and where they sell it’s product . they are make perceptions of consumer about place . next step they try to give him a good impressions about products and serves and features , the third step is feeling , to give the consumer the feeling to buy the product of apple and give him the special feeling this product is the best one between the other product in market Market Share of the company :Apple in Cell phones ( I phone ) A the chart show to us the I Phone is not the market leader in cell phones only 13% of the market ,Nokia 20% and Samsung 31%,so Blackberry is the market leader. Questionnaire: Gender : Male†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Female†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Age: *18-20†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ *21-30†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. *40 and above†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1) Did you hear about Apple I phone 5 ? Yes No 2) Can you remember the ad ,? Yes No 3) Where did you see or hear about the ad? a. Internet b. friend c. Magazine d. billboard e. Conference -other, please specify†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ) How you think about Apple I phone 4 ads and campaign? 5) Did you purchase the I phone 5 after watching the AD? Yes No Evaluation of product in cutomers,s eyes: First of all, these questionnaire was distributed on 38 students in MSA university ,20 of them was females and 18 was m ales aging from 18 to 22 years old In first question, when we ask people about do they hear about the I phone 5 ad ? about 75% of target audience answers by yes, that they hear about I phone 5 adMost of students answer by yes said that they already have I phone products so the company itself send them direct mail to them to know about product ,others said that they know about I phone from their friend whom they attend an event for company. In second question, when we ask about do the ad was memorable or not? About 20% of audience cannot remember it but majority do remember it The 80% students who are member the Ad ,they said they remember it as it was very simple ,also it looks with dark background that reflects the highly selective style. In third question, when we ask where did you see the ad ?Most of people see it on the internet whether face book or twitter, others access the apple website itself, other people answers by they know about the AD from their friends as Apple has pos itive word of mouth and company itself depend highly on the positive WOM, very rare people answers by they know about it from conference. In question four, asking about the opinion of customers in the campaign of apple I phone 5, people said that it is creative, unique, also some people really like the usage of white and black colors, people said that this is normal as we always expect the best from Apple.In the last question, people answer by yes that they purchase the I phone 5 after the ad about 65% bought it as they see it high technology and satisfy all their needs Expert interview with company: We made an interview with Mr. Samir Galal the general sales manager in Apple company-Egypt asking him about the tools of IMC they used, the budget, also about Apple opinion in using celebrities, as well as ask them also about who are their competitors. 1) How do you distribute the budget on IMC tools?Mr. Samir galal tell us that they use the internet and public relation the most tools t hey use as they have a website from the best websites in the world as they do a lot of updates to their website and put all their new products on it. According to the budget assigned to the internet they pay about 5 millions on these tool every 6 months ,however for the public relation tool, they pay about 600 thousands Egyptian pound every 6 months, they use interviews ,conferences as a tools of PR .As well as ,they use direct marketing by using mails ,if there is any problem facing customer ,they use skype for direct interaction. 2) Which tools from IMC are the most effective tools working with Apple? He tell us that direct marketing and public relation tools are most effective as they are most targeted tools as Apple targeting only A class ,however if they make a TV Ads it will be useless and high costs without return as mass market will view it however they are not targeted so direct marketing and public relation are the most selective tools that goes forward for the targeted cu stomers. ) Do you use celebrities at promoting for your product? Mr. samir answers that they don’t use any celebrities as they don’t need as Apple Word of mouth is already positive so why they will think of using celebrities and they already have a positive brand image and the brand is already highly positioned in the customer’s mind, but Apple do care a lot for their customers as they take their contact information so to make a conference inviting customers to show them the new products ,new technology. 4)who are apple main competitors in all product segments?In computer segment ,he said that Microsoft operating system is the main competitor as it has high quality but with low prices, however in mobiles ,Nokia consider high competitor as they copy everything from Apple and with moderate prices lower than Apple so a lots of people can afford it for example when Apple launch the touch option Nokia launch the same touch option with lower prices than Apple, also No kia is targeting the mass market so they make intensive distribution but Apple has only few stores as they have a problem in distribution . 5) What is the SWOT analysis of the Apple company ?Strengths : apple OSX ( operating system ) is more strengths than PC , the OS of apple no virus can hit it and can work on it for along time , Apple OSX support the graphic programmer so the designers use the Apple OS , because it more professional and fast . OSX is a heavy duty operating system , can use for along time without corruption or errors , and other Strength point is Apple gets to set the specs in detail, and deliver to the customer through a controlled retail experience (Apple Store, Apple On-line Store) that helps them explain the value to the customer and extract a premium for that value.Weakness : The company has not cover the market and not has a perfect distribution . the company can’t cover the hole market , in this case , the bad distribution lead to a lot of loses toth e company and can’t help it to chive its profit and not give it the ability to make good sales to its product. other point , the there is a big problem in I pod Nano screen . the production team discover this problem after produce the product so this problem lead to spend a lot of dollars to solve this problem , In addition this problem led the company to increase the price of music download form I Tunes . this led apple to spend by 10 million dollar to fixed this problem . Opportunity : Apple has the opportunity to develop its iTunes and music player technology into a mobile phone format. The Rokr mobile phone device was developed by Motorola. It has a colour screen, stereo speakers and a advance camera system.A version of Apple's iTunes music store has been developed for the phone so users can manage the tracks they store on it. Downloads are available via a USB cable, ands software on the handset pauses music if a phone call comes in. New technologies and strategic allianc es offer opportunities for Apple. Threats : The biggest threat to IT companies such as Apple is the very high level of competition in the technology markets. Being successful attracts competition, and Apple works very hard on research and development and marketing in order to retain its competitive position.The popularity of iPod and Apple Mac are subject to demand, and will be affected if economies begin to falter and demand falls for their products IMC Tools that Apple uses Advertising:- In fact Apple Company uses advertising a lot but not too often mainly it uses product placement, most movies of mission impossible can be said that it was sponsored by apple all actors were using laptops, I pad and I phone apple. They succeeded by doing this a lot because mission impossible is one of the most seen movies worldwide, 50% of the pie chart.Public relations:- Most of the time consumers would like to know what you are selling in your company if it’s easy to use or so complicated if it’s going to help them or not, apple communicated directly with its customers with only two simple words that changed their minds upside down and be interested more in trying new products†¦. â€Å"Think Different† apple earned customers trust and acceptance only by these words because it did change their way of thinking when purchasing a product, 30% of the pie chart is public relations. Internet:-The website of apple that apple provide flow mutual benefits and information with the company and its customers, the company benefits from understanding its target market more can be able to know their needs and wants and what they usually ask and look for on their websites, how can they help them in order to spread word of mouth as well, according to customers they can know everything about the product they are searching for details and prices and feel the difference between apple, Dell and Samsung, 50%of the pie chart is internet.Direct Marketing:- Customer service of apple is always available to their customers over the internet, they communicate directly with each other through internet if there are any complaints or anything that needs an explanation they will answer them immediately, in direct marketing apple uses only the internet to interact directly with its customers, 50% of the pie chart is direct marketing. Personal selling:-Apple products is not in a need of persuading or convincing their customers to buy them as they are most qualified with its applications and software, the huge campaign of apple made people talking about apple most of the time when it comes to technology best features as apple also can tailor specific shapes and orders depend on individual needs, also the flexibility in apple stores between buyers and sellers allow for more profits and target marketing, best prospects which is known as â€Å"creme de la creme† are niche markets apple make huge efforts with them to have them more for long periods of time a s they are very loyal and extremely profitable, 150% of pie chart is personal selling. Sales promotion:In fact due to the perfect image of apple they feel that if they added any sales promotion to their IMC programs they will lose their picture in consumer minds, as its considered to be more luxury one of the most expensive equipments, they can see that although they are expensive there are a huge demand on their products and they see that there is no need to make sales promotion because they are not targeting the whole segments, they know exactly their target audience and can satisfy them more than any other companies also exceeding their specific details that vary from one person to another so that they feel delighted and special and will not think of shifting to another brand of technology equipments. Recommendations for IMC tools that apple can use it for better reach and sales: Advertising:-Apple doesn’t need to advertise much as it is already grabbing large segments of customers and when doing product placement every now and then it’s very important to do it but the problem here is increasing the percentage of demand by more advertising not just through product placement, it would be better if they increased the billboards around to remind people about their products and keep themselves in consumers mind for example if they added more billboards on way of malls were there are many electronic stores if someone was thinking to purchase specific type of laptop and find apple billboards they will shift to it and it will grab their attention more. Public relations:-Apple doesn’t concentrate much on public relations as it fails a lot to make any event or to sponsor more events for example north coast events or charity events they don’t share in anything of it which can allow the press to make negative image in consumer minds about apple that would affect the publicity as well so it’s better to think more about taking care of their image because the image of the company can drag you down or pull you up also it will add public value. Internet:- According to the internet apple focuses in it a lot and put aside the idea that internet is not a mass medium and fails to reach all segments and niche markets orders only the tailored products but other half of the segment have the ability to buy apple products so apple shouldn’t focuses much on internet as not all its customers have an access to the internet. Direct marketing:-Only direct selling is available with apple its better if they add catalogs and send it to their customers and their customers would give them the telephone number of their friends and family to contact them telemarketing also send them the same catalogs to see more categories of apple products, that would make apple more spread, dominant an unique in the market. Personal Selling:- Apple is not in need to increase its personal selling because it is perfect on it but it’s extre mely expensive and it’s so difficult to tailor products and deliver it to customers with the same consistency each time, its more applicable make things more reliable and equal so that if they keep doing this and once something happened by not delivering the needed tailored product they will fail and in 1 minute the customer perception of apple will change totally also I depends on every customer privileges. Sales promotion:Apple is one of the multinational companies that if they made any sales promotion they would gain new customers but loses the old ones as it is not preferred to do it because it will hesitate their image in the market because its known that apple is for special segment and sales promotion wouldn’t add anything new simply it will be switching segments they will gain part and lose the other part and according to profit it will decrease badly and the company will keep losing and will suffer a lot in order to get its image and old customers back. Genera l Recommendations:- Its more applicable that apple make all tools work together in harmony so that to be differentiated more from any other companies and keep the uniqness of its products but still keeping themselves away of sales promotion, as it’s known the benefits of IMC tools when they all work with each other it will save time, money and stress, also will boost them up to profit, finally it will have competitive advantages like no other company. Apple * History: * Apple is a company which produces computers and technological products like computers, mobiles . On April 1, 1976, the Apple computer was established . Steven Wozniak, a high school drop-out who worked for Hewlett-Packard, dabbled in computer-design and created what would become the Apple I. His high school buddy Steven Jobs, also a drop-out, worked for Atari and convinced him that the two should form a company to market the new computer, which eventually took off in 1977 with the Apple II. * * By 1980, the Apple III was released and their company employed several thousand workers.It began in Egypt in 1990 and produced their products in 1991. It began to produce the first computer Mac in Egypt but there is a disadvantage that faces the company in Egypt which is the high cost! * * The computers in this time were sold by 60,000 to 70,000 so few people bought it. The owner of the Egyptian company is called Mohamed Medhat . The company also in Egypt began to produce this com puter. In 1991 the company produces approximately by 1500 prices only. The company in Egypt doesn’t correct their wrong and still the high prices of computers raises up. * In 1991 the price of iMac is 35,000 L. E. It is too much. In 1992 Apple Company makes a high loss, because of the high prices. So they began to think in another way to reduce the cost of the company. They reduced the cost to half but they also made a lot of losses. Steve is still thinking how to save the company and began to make profits. * * * Mohamed Medhat followed him in his steps to save the company in the Middle East because in this time the only branch for Apple Company in the Middle East in Egypt only in this time, but now in Egypt and UAE.They began to produce new products by low cost so they can save their company and began to make high profits. Now in 2012 apple makes a great successful product than Microsoft and become the leader of the technological market Apple Company produces a lot of unique products like: Macbook _Macbook ProMacbook Air| Next-generation quad-core and dual-core Intel processors. The 13-inch MacBook  Pro now features a 2. 4GHz Intel Core i5 processor or the fastest dual-core processor available — the 2. 8GHz Intel Core i7. With Turbo Boost speeds up to 3. GHz, these processors allow the 13-inch MacBook  Pro to perform up to twice as fast as the previous generation. 1But we couldn’t leave fast enough alone. The new 15- and 17-inch models bring quad-core power to almost everything you do. The available 2. 5GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 processor — with Turbo Boost speeds up to 3. 6GHz and up to 8MB of shared L3 cache — enables these MacBook Pro models to run applications up to twice as fast as their top-of-the-line predecessors. 2| iPad ( 3G – Wifi)| In work Mail, Calendar, Notes, and Safari in a beautiful, thin and light design, so you stay productive anywhere.With easy, secure integration into business environments a nd a robust platform for app development, iPad is ready to start working when you are. In Education iPad inspires creativity and hands-on learning with features you won’t find in any other educational tool — on a device that students really want to use. Powerful built-in apps and apps from the App Store let students engage with content in interactive ways, find information in an instant, and access an entire library wherever they go. And now, with the introduction of Multi-Touch textbooks, iPad takes learning to a whole new level. iPod (Classic – Touch-Nano)| It used for listening music and people can also watch some movies. | Services: If we talk about the apple’s services . the company give to there customer a good services through selling the product and after purchasing the product . apple’s services contain (warranty on it products for along time (between 1 to10 years ) , hardware services for instance , mousse , keyboards , monitor , track pa d , printers, hard disk and Etc. . the services contain software services also , for instance operating system (OSX ) . that’s some services after purchasing . n other hand the service before purchasing . the sales person give the full information about the products to customers , make an offers to attract more and more customer , for instance in 2011 , there are many offers which the company made ,for example , to buy I phone and get I pod Nano with full accessories . and another one to buy any laptop and get ( software and full applications for free during the offer period) in usually you should to buy them software with 250 L. E and applications with 650 L. E . so it is very attractive and good offer . Apple company provide a good packaging to save it’s products .Vision Of Apple : Apple ignited the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and reinvented the personal computer in the 1980s with the Macintosh. Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. Mission Of Apple: Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.Apple campaign for I phone 5: This is the last marketing campaign for the newest product will be in the market next summer . This advertising tell the customer for a new generation of I phone ( I Phone 5 ) with a new feature and quality . the advertising tell the customer . the new I phone is totally different from the I phone 4 , 4S and has a changes in every things . This Advertising show that apple was more interesting and focus on its segment and target it seriously . using the full capacity to stratify the targeting market SWOT analysis for Apple company:Strengths : apple OSX ( op erating system ) is more strengths than PC , the OS of apple no virus can hit it and can work on it for along time , Apple OSX support the graphic programmer so the designers use the Apple OS , because it more professional and fast . OSX is a heavy duty operating system , can use for along time without corruption or errors , and other Strength point is Apple gets to set the specs in detail, and deliver to the customer through a controlled retail experience (Apple Store, Apple On-line Store) that helps them explain the value to the customer and extract a premium for that value.Weakness : Apple prices . the cost of apple products is very high so it can’t compete in the Market . Dell and HP compete it by the same products but with less prices . so it represent a big weakness point face the company in Egypt . other point , the there is a big problem in I pod Nano screen . the production team discover this problem after produce the product , so this problem lead to spend a lot of dollars to solve this problem , In addition this problem led the company to increase the price of music download form I Tunes . this led apple to spend by 10 million dollar to fixed this problem .Opportunity : Apple has the opportunity to develop its iTunes and music player technology into a mobile phone format. The Rokr mobile phone device was developed by Motorola. It has a colour screen, stereo speakers and a advance camera system. A version of Apple's iTunes music store has been developed for the phone so users can manage the tracks they store on it. Downloads are available via a USB cable, ands software on the handset pauses music if a phone call comes in. New technologies and strategic alliances offer opportunities for Apple.Threats : The biggest threat to IT companies such as Apple is the very high level of competition in the technology markets. Being successful attracts competition, and Apple works very hard on research and development and marketing in order to retain its co mpetitive position. The popularity of iPod and Apple Mac are subject to demand, and will be affected if economies begin to falter and demand falls for their products. PESTEL analysis: Economic : apple company effected by the economic situation , the economic crises effect on the company production and company sales . he apple products have a high cost so it has a big related with the economic . ,for example, the company after the revolution , recorded a big loses in its sales and profit . after the revolution people avoid to buy the luxury products like I pod and I pad . apple recorded in 2011 loses in Egypt more than 50 Million . and in the economic crises in USA . apple recorded loses by 700 Million dollar . Technology : apple company strongly effected by technology factor , the company should to has the final technology tools that the world use it in this time . pple company every time develop their products with new feature and technology , for example I phone developed to 3GS t o 4G and finally 4GS and 5G soon . other products like I pad develop it to work with the third generation of communications (3G) . apple now is the best company all over the world use the touch technique in its products and devises . Political : Could be new laws or regulations , for Example in last time the GPS ( Navigation system ) in Egypt is not allow to use so apple stopped this program in Egypt tell 2008 and after this the government allow to use the navigation system In Egypt . o apple supported their devises by the GPS system . Social : Means social trends. If you are a phone company, Apple's entry into the cellphone market created a demand for touch screen phones, (about time! ) for example. Thus Nokia and co. had to respond. (I like Nokia, but they should have been ahead of the game in this one, so I'm glad Apple kicked them). Environmental factors: environmental factors include the weather and climate change. Changes in temperature can impact on many industries including farming, tourism and insurance.Apple may not effect with climate strongly but it may be effected by tourism , this will effect all process of the company ( production process and sell process ) Customer Analysis: Demographic ( Age – Gender – Family size – Life cycle or Income ) Apple company make different products to different ages , for instant they made I pod Nano for the children and youth and after that they made I pad for businessmen and the youth can also use it form 15 to 60 years old , they made also I Mac form grand ages .Apple is completely successful to target different ages with different product . Apple not forget to make a different between gender or sex, for example they made MacBook Air for female and made MacBook Bro for male, and also in colors they produce some laptop’s covers with pink color to target girls or female . Apple produce different products to different age and life – cycle groups . Apple company not forget to target income . they are produce a different products with different prices to be fit to any individual depend on his income , for xample there is I pod classic with 2000 pound and there is one with 3500 pound for I pod touch so any one can buy any thing from Apple depending on his income. Psychographic ( social class and life stile or personality) If we divide the market to class A – B – C , Apple target one or two from this segments . Apple will target the class A , because they provide a high quality and good products with high cost so the class A is the more segment will use apple’s products after that class B a few of them will use apple’s products .Behavior ( User Status – User Rate – Loyalty – Benefit – Occasion ) User statue : apple market divide into ex-user , who use apple’s products from along time , and first –time user who is the first time to use apple products , and potential user and we have a regular ap ple user how is use apple a lot of times . User rate : apple market divide into light , medium and heavy product user of apple . Loyalty : divide on completely loyalty that is mean some one buy all brands form one company . or example, buy I phone I pod , I pad that is mean he buy all things he want form apple , he/she very loyalty to the company Some-what loyalty , buy two or three products from apple and them go to buy any thing form different brand , for example , some one buy I phone and I pod then he shift to buy Nokia and HTC. and we have finally no loyalty , who didn’t buy any thing form apple . Target Market : There are a lot types of market targeting (undifferentiated – differentiated – concentrated – micro ) market , apple use differentiated market ( segmentation ) .It is produce different products to one or more segment (class A and a few of class B) . Differentiation and positioning Competitive advantage : apple have a lot of competitors in it ’s fields for example , Mobil phone there are a lot of competitor (Nokia – Samsung – HTC , Blackberry ) , in computers the biggest competitor is ( Microsoft ) in entertainment field there is ( Mp3,4) . so apple should to have an competitive advantage to be able to compete the other and should to have a unique feature in it’s product to be different . it should to have a good sales offer and this give it is to make a high profit and attract a lot of consumers .Apple now a days try to produce a products with a low prices to attract more and more and gain a more profit , so it can compete all competitor . Position strategy : Apple should to know the consumer the place of there products and where they sell it’s product . they are make perceptions of consumer about place . next step they try to give him a good impressions about products and serves and features , the third step is feeling , to give the consumer the feeling to buy the product of apple and give him the special feeling this product is the best one between the other product in market Market Share of the company :Apple in Cell phones ( I phone ) A the chart show to us the I Phone is not the market leader in cell phones only 13% of the market ,Nokia 20% and Samsung 31%,so Blackberry is the market leader. Questionnaire: Gender : Male†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Female†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Age: *18-20†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ *21-30†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. *40 and above†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1) Did you hear about Apple I phone 5 ? Yes No 2) Can you remember the ad ,? Yes No 3) Where did you see or hear about the ad? a. Internet b. friend c. Magazine d. billboard e. Conference -other, please specify†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ) How you think about Apple I phone 4 ads and campaign? 5) Did you purchase the I phone 5 after watching the AD? Yes No Evaluation of product in cutomers,s eyes: First of all, these questionnaire was distributed on 38 students in MSA university ,20 of them was females and 18 was m ales aging from 18 to 22 years old In first question, when we ask people about do they hear about the I phone 5 ad ? about 75% of target audience answers by yes, that they hear about I phone 5 adMost of students answer by yes said that they already have I phone products so the company itself send them direct mail to them to know about product ,others said that they know about I phone from their friend whom they attend an event for company. In second question, when we ask about do the ad was memorable or not? About 20% of audience cannot remember it but majority do remember it The 80% students who are member the Ad ,they said they remember it as it was very simple ,also it looks with dark background that reflects the highly selective style. In third question, when we ask where did you see the ad ?Most of people see it on the internet whether face book or twitter, others access the apple website itself, other people answers by they know about the AD from their friends as Apple has pos itive word of mouth and company itself depend highly on the positive WOM, very rare people answers by they know about it from conference. In question four, asking about the opinion of customers in the campaign of apple I phone 5, people said that it is creative, unique, also some people really like the usage of white and black colors, people said that this is normal as we always expect the best from Apple.In the last question, people answer by yes that they purchase the I phone 5 after the ad about 65% bought it as they see it high technology and satisfy all their needs Expert interview with company: We made an interview with Mr. Samir Galal the general sales manager in Apple company-Egypt asking him about the tools of IMC they used, the budget, also about Apple opinion in using celebrities, as well as ask them also about who are their competitors. 1) How do you distribute the budget on IMC tools?Mr. Samir galal tell us that they use the internet and public relation the most tools t hey use as they have a website from the best websites in the world as they do a lot of updates to their website and put all their new products on it. According to the budget assigned to the internet they pay about 5 millions on these tool every 6 months ,however for the public relation tool, they pay about 600 thousands Egyptian pound every 6 months, they use interviews ,conferences as a tools of PR .As well as ,they use direct marketing by using mails ,if there is any problem facing customer ,they use skype for direct interaction. 2) Which tools from IMC are the most effective tools working with Apple? He tell us that direct marketing and public relation tools are most effective as they are most targeted tools as Apple targeting only A class ,however if they make a TV Ads it will be useless and high costs without return as mass market will view it however they are not targeted so direct marketing and public relation are the most selective tools that goes forward for the targeted cu stomers. ) Do you use celebrities at promoting for your product? Mr. samir answers that they don’t use any celebrities as they don’t need as Apple Word of mouth is already positive so why they will think of using celebrities and they already have a positive brand image and the brand is already highly positioned in the customer’s mind, but Apple do care a lot for their customers as they take their contact information so to make a conference inviting customers to show them the new products ,new technology. 4)who are apple main competitors in all product segments?In computer segment ,he said that Microsoft operating system is the main competitor as it has high quality but with low prices, however in mobiles ,Nokia consider high competitor as they copy everything from Apple and with moderate prices lower than Apple so a lots of people can afford it for example when Apple launch the touch option Nokia launch the same touch option with lower prices than Apple, also No kia is targeting the mass market so they make intensive distribution but Apple has only few stores as they have a problem in distribution . 5) What is the SWOT analysis of the Apple company ?Strengths : apple OSX ( operating system ) is more strengths than PC , the OS of apple no virus can hit it and can work on it for along time , Apple OSX support the graphic programmer so the designers use the Apple OS , because it more professional and fast . OSX is a heavy duty operating system , can use for along time without corruption or errors , and other Strength point is Apple gets to set the specs in detail, and deliver to the customer through a controlled retail experience (Apple Store, Apple On-line Store) that helps them explain the value to the customer and extract a premium for that value.Weakness : The company has not cover the market and not has a perfect distribution . the company can’t cover the hole market , in this case , the bad distribution lead to a lot of loses toth e company and can’t help it to chive its profit and not give it the ability to make good sales to its product. other point , the there is a big problem in I pod Nano screen . the production team discover this problem after produce the product so this problem lead to spend a lot of dollars to solve this problem , In addition this problem led the company to increase the price of music download form I Tunes . this led apple to spend by 10 million dollar to fixed this problem . Opportunity : Apple has the opportunity to develop its iTunes and music player technology into a mobile phone format. The Rokr mobile phone device was developed by Motorola. It has a colour screen, stereo speakers and a advance camera system.A version of Apple's iTunes music store has been developed for the phone so users can manage the tracks they store on it. Downloads are available via a USB cable, ands software on the handset pauses music if a phone call comes in. New technologies and strategic allianc es offer opportunities for Apple. Threats : The biggest threat to IT companies such as Apple is the very high level of competition in the technology markets. Being successful attracts competition, and Apple works very hard on research and development and marketing in order to retain its competitive position.The popularity of iPod and Apple Mac are subject to demand, and will be affected if economies begin to falter and demand falls for their products IMC Tools that Apple uses Advertising:- In fact Apple Company uses advertising a lot but not too often mainly it uses product placement, most movies of mission impossible can be said that it was sponsored by apple all actors were using laptops, I pad and I phone apple. They succeeded by doing this a lot because mission impossible is one of the most seen movies worldwide, 50% of the pie chart.Public relations:- Most of the time consumers would like to know what you are selling in your company if it’s easy to use or so complicated if it’s going to help them or not, apple communicated directly with its customers with only two simple words that changed their minds upside down and be interested more in trying new products†¦. â€Å"Think Different† apple earned customers trust and acceptance only by these words because it did change their way of thinking when purchasing a product, 30% of the pie chart is public relations. Internet:-The website of apple that apple provide flow mutual benefits and information with the company and its customers, the company benefits from understanding its target market more can be able to know their needs and wants and what they usually ask and look for on their websites, how can they help them in order to spread word of mouth as well, according to customers they can know everything about the product they are searching for details and prices and feel the difference between apple, Dell and Samsung, 50%of the pie chart is internet.Direct Marketing:- Customer service of apple is always available to their customers over the internet, they communicate directly with each other through internet if there are any complaints or anything that needs an explanation they will answer them immediately, in direct marketing apple uses only the internet to interact directly with its customers, 50% of the pie chart is direct marketing. Personal selling:-Apple products is not in a need of persuading or convincing their customers to buy them as they are most qualified with its applications and software, the huge campaign of apple made people talking about apple most of the time when it comes to technology best features as apple also can tailor specific shapes and orders depend on individual needs, also the flexibility in apple stores between buyers and sellers allow for more profits and target marketing, best prospects which is known as â€Å"creme de la creme† are niche markets apple make huge efforts with them to have them more for long periods of time a s they are very loyal and extremely profitable, 150% of pie chart is personal selling. Sales promotion:In fact due to the perfect image of apple they feel that if they added any sales promotion to their IMC programs they will lose their picture in consumer minds, as its considered to be more luxury one of the most expensive equipments, they can see that although they are expensive there are a huge demand on their products and they see that there is no need to make sales promotion because they are not targeting the whole segments, they know exactly their target audience and can satisfy them more than any other companies also exceeding their specific details that vary from one person to another so that they feel delighted and special and will not think of shifting to another brand of technology equipments. Recommendations for IMC tools that apple can use it for better reach and sales: Advertising:-Apple doesn’t need to advertise much as it is already grabbing large segments of customers and when doing product placement every now and then it’s very important to do it but the problem here is increasing the percentage of demand by more advertising not just through product placement, it would be better if they increased the billboards around to remind people about their products and keep themselves in consumers mind for example if they added more billboards on way of malls were there are many electronic stores if someone was thinking to purchase specific type of laptop and find apple billboards they will shift to it and it will grab their attention more. Public relations:-Apple doesn’t concentrate much on public relations as it fails a lot to make any event or to sponsor more events for example north coast events or charity events they don’t share in anything of it which can allow the press to make negative image in consumer minds about apple that would affect the publicity as well so it’s better to think more about taking care of their image because the image of the company can drag you down or pull you up also it will add public value. Internet:- According to the internet apple focuses in it a lot and put aside the idea that internet is not a mass medium and fails to reach all segments and niche markets orders only the tailored products but other half of the segment have the ability to buy apple products so apple shouldn’t focuses much on internet as not all its customers have an access to the internet. Direct marketing:-Only direct selling is available with apple its better if they add catalogs and send it to their customers and their customers would give them the telephone number of their friends and family to contact them telemarketing also send them the same catalogs to see more categories of apple products, that would make apple more spread, dominant an unique in the market. Personal Selling:- Apple is not in need to increase its personal selling because it is perfect on it but it’s extre mely expensive and it’s so difficult to tailor products and deliver it to customers with the same consistency each time, its more applicable make things more reliable and equal so that if they keep doing this and once something happened by not delivering the needed tailored product they will fail and in 1 minute the customer perception of apple will change totally also I depends on every customer privileges. Sales promotion:Apple is one of the multinational companies that if they made any sales promotion they would gain new customers but loses the old ones as it is not preferred to do it because it will hesitate their image in the market because its known that apple is for special segment and sales promotion wouldn’t add anything new simply it will be switching segments they will gain part and lose the other part and according to profit it will decrease badly and the company will keep losing and will suffer a lot in order to get its image and old customers back. Genera l Recommendations:- Its more applicable that apple make all tools work together in harmony so that to be differentiated more from any other companies and keep the uniqness of its products but still keeping themselves away of sales promotion, as it’s known the benefits of IMC tools when they all work with each other it will save time, money and stress, also will boost them up to profit, finally it will have competitive advantages like no other company.